Diabetes is a leading cause of blindness in the United States. Elevated blood sugar and inflammation damages the blood vessels in the retina, which can lead to bleeding, swelling, and loss of circulation in the retina. Early diabetic retinopathy can be monitored closely, but more advanced types of diabetic retinopathy can lead to vision loss and even blindness. Fortunately, if treated early, excellent vision can often be retained. Treatments consist of intravitreal injections and laser treatments. Damage from advanced diabetic retinopathy often requires surgical repair in the operating room.